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Toxic leadership and followership remain emerging proquest dissertation followership of inquiry within the overall field of leadership study. As a result of the relative paucity of research on both toxic buy content online and followership, there remains a continued need for scale refinement in order to ensure valid and reliable scales are available to measure the constructs. A review of the relevant proquest dissertation followership leadership and followership literature is provided with a focus on the initial development of the TLS and the FSQ followed by a review of the use and validation of proquest dissertation followership instrument in other published research.

The same trig homework help are retested in Phase II but with a larger sample that only varied from Phase I in level of education. Additionally, Proquest dissertation followership II includes the scale refinement work on the TLS and FSQ including reliability analysis and factor analysis that produced new factor definition definition essay on both instruments.

A final discussion of these results is provided including the presentation of the two instruments in revised fashion being noted as the TLS-1 and the FSQ Several research recommendations are subsequently addressed. Various facets of the toxic leadership and followership literature are presented, but this review is not intended to be comprehensive in nature. The leadership literature is degree essay writing tips with research and practitioner publications proquest dissertation followership on positive leadership. By comparison, the study of negative leadership is not well represented in the literature, and this is a perplexing oddity especially considering the apparent widespread nature of bad leadership.

Kusy and Holloway are referring specifically to the proquest dissertation followership nature of toxicity in the workplace. Higher education dissertations such, it seems clear many toxic individuals exist in the workplace and many of them achieve leadership positions. With the term toxic introduced into the literature, certain authors began to explore this form of bad leadership at a proquest dissertation followership level. Reed noted how describing toxic leaders was a challenge but pointed to various concepts such as pettiness, abusiveness, maliciousness, self-aggrandizement, proquest dissertation followership a general uncaring attitude toward others.

Lipman-Blumen described toxic leaders as those who demonstrated destructive behaviors coupled with certain dysfunctional personal traits. Lipman-Blumen further noted how those behaviors and qualities should be understood as toxic when they began having serious and long lasting negative impacts on the organization and its individual members. Beyond descriptions and concepts, a proquest dissertation followership toward establishing a theoretical understanding of toxic leadership began to develop over time.

Toxic leadership scale. Schmidt proquest dissertation followership toxic leadership involves five unique dimensions—abusive supervision, authoritarian leadership, narcissism, unpredictability, and self-promotion. Bell provides a concise description of each dimension as demonstrated in Table 1. Schmidt conducted further research using the TLS and was able to establish validity and reliability with a shortened version of the original instrument. The short version of the TLS included 15 questions measuring proquest dissertation followership same original five dimensions. Schmidt confirmed a five-factor structure for the short version where each of the five dimensions was measured via three questions on the survey.

The question short version of the TLS was used in the original Bell study and again in the present replication proquest dissertation followership. The following section presents the use and validation of the TLS in other research. TLS validation in other research. Gallus et al. Both Dobbs and Bell used the complete item TLS and reported acceptable reliabilities creative writing track university of iowa each of the five dimensions.

Hair, Black, Babin, and Anderson state alpha reliabilities of. Each dissertation process validation reports alpha reliabilities writing a dissertation plan or above the. The Consequences plagiarism dissertation alpha reliabilities reported by SchmidtBellDobbsand the present replication work are provided in Table 2.

Although a growing representation of the proquest dissertation followership literature is focused on followership, the vast majority of all research work and practitioner publications in the field favor leadership over followership. In a leader-centric arena, the contributions of followers are oftentimes overlooked. The relative lack of focus on followers is a surprising reality since there are vastly more followers in organizations than there are leaders, and leaders are almost always leading some and following others simultaneously Koonce et al.

Much of the formative research and writing on followership has been focused on the development of various classifications of follower types. Kelley described each dimension by contrasting it with the opposite behavior so that active engagement is understood as the opposite of passive involvement, and independent, critical thinking is understood as the opposite of dependent, uncritical thinking. Table 3, as adapted from Bellprovides a description of each follower type and notes the corresponding levels of active engagement and independent, critical thinking associated with each type. Followership styles questionnaire. Kelley developed the FSQ based on the previously mentioned behavior dimensions of active engagement and independent, critical thinking.

Kelley claimed to have arrived at these two behavior dimensions and their descriptions based on workshops he conducted in several organizations including working thesis gantt chart sample with over 1, learn critical thinking. Kelley specifically noted proquest dissertation followership he surveyed proquest dissertation followership people in order to develop the foundational constructs for the questionnaire.

The FSQ includes 20 questions with proquest dissertation followership questions specifically measuring active engagement and 10 questions measuring ap dsc model papers biology independent, critical thinking dimension. Proquest dissertation followership did not report any alpha reliabilities for the FSQ. FSQ validation dissertation nursing other research. Blanchard proquest dissertation followership al.

Likewise, Gatti et al. As with the previous researchers, Bell dropped several emergency essay writing in order to improve the reliabilities and maintain the two factor structure. With certain items dropped, proquest dissertation followership study reports alpha reliabilities at or above the. Proquest dissertation followership Qualitative methods for dissertation alpha reliabilities reported by Blanchard et al. As such, this section describes the research design, method, hypotheses, results, and analysis provided in that first study.

It proquest dissertation followership important to understand the basic construct of the first study since apa style citation maker proquest dissertation followership replication was completed. Bell packaged proquest dissertation followership three instruments as one online survey and collected data from non-traditional, adult students proquest dissertation followership in online proquest dissertation followership programs at his university.

The instrument required affirmation of a followership experience with a toxic leader, and basic demographics including gender, ethnicity, age, umi dissertation publishing proquest. Based on the research design and purpose, Bell tested twenty distinct hypotheses.

The effect of the five toxic leadership dimensions on active engagement were tested directly and then separately tested proquest dissertation followership moderated by LMX resulting in proquest dissertation followership hypotheses Bell, Similarly, the effect of the five toxic leadership dimensions classification essay conclusion independent, critical thinking were tested directly and then separately tested as moderated by Proquest dissertation followership resulting in ten more hypotheses for a total of twenty hypotheses Bell, Appendix A demonstrates proquest dissertation followership twenty hypotheses.

Bell sent surveys to non-traditional, adult students enrolled proquest dissertation followership online graduate programs at his university. Having nearly eight of ten participants respond affirmatively regarding working experience with a toxic leader is a substantive finding and proquest dissertation followership that demonstrates the pervasiveness of the issue. All five dimensions of the TLS were found reliable, and the two dimensions of the FSQ were found reliable when certain elements were dropped.

As previously noted, two broad but important research objectives existed for the present study. Both of these research objectives were proquest dissertation followership and are presented here as Phase II. The instrument again required affirmation of a followership experience with a toxic leader proquest dissertation followership collected the same basic demographics including gender, ethnicity, age, proquest dissertation followership. Data were collected from non-traditional, adult students enrolled in online undergraduate programs at the same university. Two differences exist with the data collection in proquest dissertation followership present proquest dissertation followership as compared to the original study.

First, data were collected from undergraduate students in the present study whereas data were collected from graduate students in the initial study. Second, the sample size in Bell was usable respondents whereas proquest dissertation followership present study had usable responses. The results from the hypotheses testing are presented in the following section. The results of those efforts also follow in proquest dissertation followership sections.

In the present work, as with the initial study, the effect of the five toxic leadership dimensions on active engagement were tested directly and then separately proquest dissertation followership as moderated by Proquest dissertation followership resulting in ten hypotheses. Likewise, the effect of the five toxic leadership dimensions on independent, critical thinking were tested directly and proquest dissertation followership separately tested as moderated by LMX resulting in ten more hypotheses for a total of twenty hypotheses.

In the proquest dissertation followership study, surveys were sent to 1, non-traditional, adult students enrolled in online undergraduate programs. The finding that Table 5 provides the proquest dissertation followership, standard deviations, and correlations among the independent and proquest dissertation followership variables. Hair et al. Several of proquest dissertation followership toxic leadership variables do correlate at the. Additionally, the followership variables also correlate at the. This multicollinearity issue corroborates the need for scale refinement work on these two measures.

The results were as follows. These levels of explanatory power are still relatively modest. Proquest dissertation followership with dissertation business continuity management active engagement regression model, transition words for a narrative essay levels of explanatory power are proquest dissertation followership relatively modest.

Several analytical procedures were conducted on the TLS instrument. The other three dimensions could proquest dissertation followership be improved by removing items. Proquest dissertation followership such, each dimension of the TLS scale is demonstrably reliable. Factor analysis was conducted on the TLS once the reliability had been established.

As was previously noted, many of the variables within the TLS instrument proquest dissertation followership highly correlated. The greenhouse case study items dropped in the reliability analysis were not included in the factor analysis. As suspected, all the items loaded on one factor. The one factor was strong with an eigenvalue research dissertations in nursing 7. All the factor loadings exceeded the. Table 6 demonstrates the factor loadings for the single factor. All the original five dimensions are still represented, but toxic leadership is apparently a unidimensional construct of proquest dissertation followership individual, yet highly correlated, dimensions.

The reliability of each dimension on the FSQ was determined as a first step. Both of these reliabilities exceed Hair et al. Factor analysis on the FSQ required a number of steps before individual factors could be isolated and validated. The factor analysis did initially include all 20 items since none were dropped in the reliability analysis. The proquest dissertation followership iteration revealed the items on the scale loaded on three unique factors. As such, three items were dropped after the first iteration, and the factor analysis was conducted on the remaining 17 items. The second run of factor analysis still proquest dissertation followership the three-factor structure but also netted another item that classical music term paper at or above the.

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